The Factory Above the Gaol:
Australia’s First Female Factory (2015)

By Michaela Ann Cameron

Abstract: Australia’s first female factory at Parramatta (known as the “Factory Above the Gaol”) was Governor King’s attempt to solve the problem of accommodating the colony’s abundance of unemployed women in order to protect them (and the young colony) from corrupt influences. In its industrial capacity, the factory excelled in its early years. As a refuge-cum-guardian of public morality, however, it fell considerably short with severe overcrowding and deteriorating buildings. Read more >>

The Parramatta Female Factory:
Australia’s First Purpose-Built Female Factory (2015)

By Michaela Ann Cameron

Abstract: The Parramatta Female Factory is the largest and oldest surviving convict women’s site in Australia. Built between 1818 and 1821, the Female Factory operated between February 1821 and c. 1848 as a refuge for women and children, elderly and sick women; a marriage bureau; a place of assignment and moral reform; a penitentiary; a women’s hospital for the convicted as well as the free; and a workhouse – all rolled into one. Read more >>