Martha Hughes

MARTHA HUGHES was a convict woman transported for life per Wanstead (1814). On arrival in the colony, she was sent to the first Parramatta Female Factory, i.e. the Factory Above the Gaol, which was located at present-day Prince Alfred Square, Parramatta, including land now occupied by the Riverside Theatres.

It is not clear exactly who she is, as there were two convict women with the same name and same sentence on that ship: one was tried at the Old Bailey on 2 December 1812 (see “Sources” below for the trial record), while the other was tried at the Lancaster Assizes on 20 March 1813. Further research required.


  • Tried and convicted: 1812–1813, England
  • Sentenced to transportation for life
  • Sailed to the colony of New South Wales per Wanstead: 24 August 1813, Spithead, England
  • Arrived in the colony of New South Wales per Wanstead: 9 January 1814, Port Jackson, New South Wales
  • Forwarded to the first Parramatta Female Factory, the Factory Above the Gaol: 13 January 1814, Factory Above the Gaol, (present-day Prince Alfred Square, Parramatta).


Factory Above the Gaol, First Parramatta Female Factory, Parramatta, 1809, early nineteenth century, New South Wales, Female Factory Online, Prince Alfred Square
CLICK IMAGE TO ENLARGE. The Factory Above the Gaol, Parramatta’s first Female Factory, is on the far right of this image near the old gaol bridge, on the present-day site of Lennox Bridge, Riverside Theatres and Prince Alfred Square. “A view of part of Parramatta Port Jackson, [1809?],” in Series 01: Australian paintings by J.W. Lewin, G.P. Harris, G.W. Evans and others, 1796-1809 [32 watercolours], Vol. 3. Courtesy of Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales. PXD 388 / FL1152086.


  • New South Wales Government, Copies of letters sent within the Colony, Series 937, Reels 6004-6016, (State Records Authority of New South Wales, Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia).
  • Old Bailey Proceedings Online (, version 8.0), 28 October 1812, trial of MARTHA HUGHES (t18121202-22), accessed 4 December 2018.
  • The Digital Panopticon (, Version 1.1), Martha Hughes Life Archive (ID: obpt18121202-22-defend271), accessed 4 December 2018.


# Convict

# Punishment: Transportation for Life

# Ship: Wanstead (1814)

# Factory Above the Gaol

This profile is a stub. Further information will be added in due course.